Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Dot Gov

The .gov means it’s official.
Federal government websites often end in .gov or .mil. Before sharing sensitive information, make sure you’re on a federal government site.


The site is secure.
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.

Local and Mesoscale Impacts of Wind Farms As Parameterized In A Mesoscale NWP Model


A new wind farm parameterization has been developed for the mesoscale numerical weather prediction model, the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). The effects of wind turbines are represented by imposing a momentum sink on the mean flow; transferring kinetic energy into electricity and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). The parameterization improves upon previous models, basing the atmospheric drag of turbines on the thrust coefficient of a modern commercial turbine. In addition, the source of TKE varies with wind speed, reflecting the amount of energy extracted from the atmosphere by the turbines that does not produce electrical energy. Analyses of idealized simulations of a large offshore wind farm are presented to highlight the perturbation induced by the wind farm and its interaction with the atmospheric boundary layer (BL). A wind speed deficit extended throughout the depth of the neutral boundary layer, above and downstream from the farm, with a long wake of 60-km e-folding distance. Within the farm the wind speed deficit reached a maximum reduction of 16%. A maximum increase of TKE, by nearly a factor of 7, was located within the farm. The increase in TKE extended to the top of the BL above the farm due to vertical transport and wind shear, significantly enhancing turbulent momentum fluxes. The TKE increased by a factor of 2 near the surface within the farm. Near-surface winds accelerated by up to 11%. These results are consistent with the few results available from observations and large-eddy simulations, indicating this parameterization provides a reasonable means of exploring potential downwind impacts of large wind farms.

Article / Publication Data
Print 0027-0644/Online 1520-0493
Available Metadata
Accepted On
February 15, 2012
Fiscal Year
Publication Name
Mon. Wea. Rev.
Published On
September 01, 2012
Final Online Publication On
September 01, 2012
Publisher Name
Amer Meteorological Soc
Print Volume
Print Number
Page Range
Submitted On
December 03, 2011


Not available


Authors who have authored or contributed to this publication.

Not available