Air pollutant accumulations during wintertime persistent cold air pool (PCAP) events in mountain valleys are of great concern for public health worldwide. Uncertainties associated with the simulated meteorology under stable conditions over complex terrain hinder realistic simulations of air quality using chemical transport models. We use the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to simulate the gaseous and particulate species for 1 month in January 2011 during the Persistent Cold Air Pool Study (PCAPS) in the Salt Lake Valley (SLV), Utah (USA). Results indicate that the temporal variability associated with the elevated NOx and PM2.5 concentrations during PCAP events was captured by the model (r = 0.20 for NOx and r = 0.49 for PM2.5). However, concentrations were not at the correct magnitude (NMB = −35/12% for PM2.5 during PCAPs/non-PCAPs), where PM2.5 was underestimated during PCAP events and overestimated during non-PCAP periods. The underestimated PCAP strength is represented by valley heat deficit, which contributed to the underestimated PM2.5 concentrations compared with observations due to the model simulating more vertical mixing and less stable stratification than what was observed. Based on the observations, the dominant PM2.5 species were ammonium and nitrate. We provide a discussion that aims to investigate the emissions and chemistry model uncertainties using the nitrogen ratio method and the thermodynamic ammonium nitrate regime method.