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Observed Bulk Hook Echo Drop Size Distribution Evolution In Supercell Tornadogenesis and Tornadogenesis Failure


The time preceding supercell tornadogenesis and tornadogenesis “failure” has been studied extensively to identify differing attributes related to tornado production or lack thereof. Studies from the Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment (VORTEX) found that air in the rear-flank downdraft (RFD) regions of non- and weakly tornadic supercells had different near-surface thermodynamic characteristics than that in strongly tornadic supercells. Subsequently, it was proposed that microphysical processes are likely to have an impact on the resulting thermodynamics of the near-surface RFD region. One way to view proxies to microphysical features, namely, drop size distributions (DSDs), is through use of polarimetric radar data. Studies from the second VORTEX used data from dual-polarization radars to provide evidence of different DSDs in the hook echoes of tornadic and nontornadic supercells. However, radar-based studies during these projects were limited to a small number of cases preventing result generalizations. This study compiles 68 tornadic and 62 nontornadic supercells using Weather Surveillance Radar–1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) data to analyze changes in polarimetric radar variables leading up to, and at, tornadogenesis and tornadogenesis failure. Case types generally did not show notable hook echo differences in variables between sets, but did show spatial hook echo quadrant DSD differences. Consistent with past studies, differential radar reflectivity factor (ZDR) generally decreased leading up to tornadogenesis and tornadogenesis failure; in both sets, estimated total number concentration increased during the same times. Relationships between DSDs and the near-storm environment, and implications of results for nowcasting tornadogenesis, also are discussed.

Article / Publication Data
Available Metadata
Fiscal Year
Peer Reviewed
Publication Name
Monthly Weather Review
Published On
July 19, 2021
Publisher Name
American Meteorological Society
Print Volume
Submitted On
October 28, 2020


Authors who have authored or contributed to this publication.