This study presents the first full annual cycle (2019–2020) of ambient surface aerosol particle number concentration measurements (condensation nuclei > 20 nm, N20) collected at Summit Station (Summit), in the centre of the Greenland Ice Sheet (72.58∘ N, −38.45∘ E; 3250 ma.s.l.). The mean surface concentration in 2019 was 129 cm−3, with the 6 h mean ranging between 1 and 1441 cm−3. The highest monthly mean concentrations occurred during the late spring and summer, with the minimum concentrations occurring in February (mean: 18 cm−3). High-N20 events are linked to anomalous anticyclonic circulation over Greenland and the descent of free-tropospheric aerosol down to the surface, whereas low-N20 events are linked to anomalous cyclonic circulation over south-east Greenland that drives upslope flow and enhances precipitation en route to Summit. Fog strongly affects particle number concentrations, on average reducing N20 by 20 % during the first 3 h of fog formation. Extremely-low-N20 events (< 10 cm−3) occur in all seasons, and we suggest that fog, and potentially cloud formation, can be limited by low aerosol particle concentrations over central Greenland.