Different methods of solving shallow water models on icosahedral grids were compared. Specifically, researchers examined the differences in accuracy from using unstaggered variables (A-grid, with mass and velocity at cell centers) compared to staggered variables (C-grid, with mass and velocity on cell edges). It was found that C-grid performs better in noise-control and energy conservation, but error increased as resolution increased. A-grid performed better in conserving potential enstrophy and minimized error with increasing resolution. Modifications were proposed to reduce these numerical errors. Modeling shallow water on icosahedral grids on spheres is an ongoing problem to resolve in crucial weather and climate models. Understanding the associated numerical errors and methods of resolving them are key in strengthening weather and climate models.
Authors who have authored or contributed to this publication.