Tropical cyclone (TC) forecast verification techniques have traditionally focused on track and intensity, as these are some of the most important characteristics of TCs and are often the principle verification concerns of operational forecast centers. However, there is a growing need to verify other aspects of TCs as process-based validation techniques may be increasingly necessary for further track and intensity forecast improvements as well as improving communication of the broad impacts of TCs including inland flooding from precipitation. Here we present a set of TC-focused verification methods available via the Model Evaluation Tools (MET) ranging from traditional approaches, to the application of storm-centric coordinates and the use of feature-based verification of spatially-defined TC objects. Storm-relative verification using observed and forecast tracks can be useful for identifying model biases in precipitation accumulation in relation to the storm center. Using a storm-centric cylindrical coordinate system based on the radius of maximum wind adds additional storm-relative capabilities to regrid precipitation fields onto cylindrical or polar coordinates. This powerful process-based model diagnostic and verification technique provides a framework for improved understanding of feedbacks between forecast tracks, intensity, and precipitation distributions. Finally, object-based verification including land masking capabilities provides even more nuanced verification options. Precipitation objects of interest, either the central core of TCs or extended areas of rainfall after landfall, can be identified, matched to observations, and quickly aggregated to build meaningful spatial and summary verification statistics.
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